ABES stores electrical energy in the form of chemical energy, which is then converted back into electricity when needed.
Batteries contain two electrodes (anode and cathode), two terminals composed of different chemicals, and the electrolyte that separates the terminals.
The electrolyte enables the flow of ions between the two electrodes and external wires to allow for electrical charge to flow.
The U.S. has several operational battery-related energy storage projects based on lead-acid, lithium-ion, nickel-based, sodium-based, and flow batteries.
These batteries account for 0.75 GW of rated power in 2018 and have efficiencies between 60-95%.